The zone of Catignano had been one of the areas of influence of the noble family of the Cadolingi in Val d'Elsa since the first half of the 11th century. This area was, in fact, well connected to the family’s assets of the Valdarno, from the oldest route of the Via Francigena that passed nearby the parish church of Chianni, up along the ridges of the hills on the left side of the Elsa. The first attestation of the toponym concerns in a singular manner the abbey of San Salvatore at Fucecchio. In the locality of Catignano there were lands donated to the abbey by the Counts Cadolingi in 1008 and later, in 1034. This locality, together with that of Cambiano, constituted the nucleus of the farthest outlying possessions with respect to with the greater part of the abbatial goods, concentrated for the most part the lower Val d'Elsa, the lower Val d'Egola, and the territory around Fucecchio. Another interesting element: in the donation paper from 1034, the locality "Santo Stefano," not yet identified, also appears, which however could be identified with the site of the castle of Santo Stefano in the Val d'Egola, near Montaione, whose origins remain unknown, but which would have been part, like Catignano and Cambiano, of the most ancient nucleus of Cadolingi assets of the upper Valdelsa. Nonetheless, written sources recall a castle in the locality of Catignano only in the second half of the century, in 1075, when Count Ughiccione dei Cadolingi found himself in the place called Catiniano, near the castrum, drawing up a document of concession concerning the noble family, then involved in the founding of the monastery of San Vittore. Catignano was therefore one of the Valdelsan castles of the Counts of Fucecchio. In fact, on several occasions we find them in Catignano, engaged in the act of drawing up documents relating to their possessions in the Valdelsa. They are always accompanied by personages of the local nobility with whom they had patrimonial relationships and with whom they certainly tied personal bonds. In 1093, we find Count Ughiccione still in Valdelsa, in Catignano, in the company of a personage from the Ghisolfi family, Ildibrandino del fu Pagano. On that occasion, the return was ratified of assets pledged for financial aid received by the count. The money was needed by Ildibrandino and his father to finance the works for the fortification of Montespertoli, one of the main localities where this family group was rooted. Among the possessions of the Ghisolfi, distributed between the Val di Pesa and the Valdelsa, there are some located in the immediate vicinity of Catignano. A few years later, at the beginning of the 12th century, we still meet members of the Cadolingi in the Catignano area. In 1104 Counts Ugo and Lotario are, in fact, found in Varna, together with some personages of the small local nobility, personages who in the following century would be among the protagonists of the founding of the castrum novum of Gambassi. In these places, therefore, where the reciprocal possessions intersected, the families of local lords had the possibility of forging personal relationships with the counts of Fucecchio. The castle of Catignano would be ceded by the counts of Fucecchio, between 1104 and 1105, partly to the family abbey of Borgonuovo and in part to the bishop of Volterra. In 1118 the part of the curtis of Catignano belonging to the abbey of San Salvatore was ceded by Abbot Rolando to the parish church of Chianni in the Valdelsa, diocese of Volterra.