Toward the end of the 13th century, in a completely different scenario, the pilgrimage route, articulated near Fucecchio in the junctions of the bridges over the Arno and the Usciana, took on a completely new role. The road, in its connection there to the system constituted by the castle of Fucecchio and of the two obligatory crossings, became a strategic node of primary importance in the control of the border that, at the end of the 13th century, saw the cities of Lucca and Florence in opposition, the latter intending, then, to push the boundary of its territory beyond the Arno, toward the Valdinievole. It is within this context that we must read the interventions on the infrastructures of roads and bridges, and even on the fortified village of Fucecchio, which between the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century constituted a genuine program for strengthening and protecting the border between the Arno and the marshes. The interventions were developed by Lucca, which, through the close relations it had with the Altopascio hospital, controlled that stretch of road that led up from the Arno, to the Cerbaie, and toward the city. The program included the fortification of Fucecchio, which was surrounded by a new circuit of walls, and the fortification of the two bridges. The old wooden bridge over the Arno dating from Frederick II's time was replaced in 1261 by a stone bridge with at least one tower in 1282. At the same time, the Cappiano bridge was fortified with a tower equipped with at least two drawbridges and had to be manned by a permanent garrison of 30 armed men. This essentially was the form in which Leonardo would depict it in the early 16th century, shortly before its radical transformation desired by Cosimo I.