At the beginning of the 16th century, when the nearby San Pantaleo was annexed (1506), the church of San Lorenzo in Arniano was still in good condition. After the middle of the century, we find many more references to the bad condition of the building. In 1575 it required restoration, as reported in the pastoral visits of the time, to the extent that, as it would appear, the rector was required to stay at the nearby Santa Lucia a Paterno. In 1616, the church of San Lorenzo "manifesta ruina", that is, it threatened to collapse, to the extent that its rector asked to be able to officiate exclusively in the nearby church of Santa Lucia. Ultimately, he asked for the unsafe building to be demolished. The bishop ordered the parishioners to restore the church on an urgent basis, under penalty of demolition within three months. The community probably was not able to do it. The furnishings of the church were ordered to be transferred to Santa Lucia, including a beautiful canvas depicting the titular saint, San Lorenzo and the Virgin and Child, which was later described as "very ancient and beautiful" (1735), "an ancient painting, superb [...]. It would appear to be by Ghirlandaio" (1756). The church of San Lorenzo has recently been identified in one of the farmhouses along the Via di San Lorenzo—today in ruins—which still retains some pieces of the original masonry. The same building is also represented by Leonardo in one of the maps that illustrate the project of the artificial lake he wanted to build just downstream from the Arniano slope. In the map of the Capitani di Parte Guelfa depicting the community of San Lorenzo a rgnano, we can see the profile of the church as it must have appeared to Leonardo’s eyes: a small single-chamber oratory with a gabled roof and bell gable on the back of the roof.