Castelnuovo di Val di Cecina
Leonardo represents and indicates, on maps RL 12278 and 12683 (Windsor Castle), Castelnuovo Val di Cecina, a fortification of notable importance for its dominant position on the Pavone torrent.
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of Gello, now in the Commune of Montecatini Val di Cecina.
Leonardo represents the medieval castle of Lari, predecessor of the sixteenth-century Medicean fortress. The same locality is found again on folio 110 r-a of the Codex Atlanticus.
Leonardo represents and indicates on map RL 12683 and, twice (probably by mistake), on map RL 12278, Montecastelli (in the Commune of Castelnuovo Val di Cecina), situated in a strategic position overlooking the Valle del Pavone with the imposing structure of the medieval tower and the Romanesque church of Santi Filippo e Giacomo.
Montecatini Val di Cecina
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of Montecatini Val di Cecina.
Leonardo indicates the position of Monteforcoli, now in Palaia.
Leonardo represents and indicates "Montegenmoli", now in the Commune of Pomarance.
Leonardo represents and indicates the locality of Pastina, in the Commune of Santa Luce.
Leonardo describes the articulation of the fortifications of the Pietracassia fort, in the Commune of Lajatico.
Leonardo represents the locality di Pomaia, in the Commune of Santa Luce.
Leonardo represents and indicates the castle of "Le Pomerance", with wall and towers, today's Pomarance.
Leonardo represents and indicates Querceto, now in the Commune of Montecatini Val di Cecina.
By "Serafino" Leonardo indicates the locality of San Ruffino in the Commune of Lari.
In the Commune of Pomarance, Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of Sillano with two belts of walls and a tower at the centre, on map RL 12683; and in more schematic manner, but still circular, on map RL 12278. The imposing medieval fortification, standing guard over the valleys of the Possera and the Pavone, is today in ruins.
Leonardo represents and indicates the locality of Soiana, now in the Commune of Terricciola.
Leonardo draws in detail, from different angles and assembly reconstructions, the Etruscan city of Volterra, on maps RL 12683 (from the east) and 12278, and mentions its strategic importance in relation to the Val di Cecina and the Valdera on the hydrographic map RL 12277. He also notes, in Madrid Ms. II (f. 3r), the observations made by him to find the geographical positions of the localities referred to, on the roads that from Montalbano run toward the Valdarno, the Monti Pisani and San Gimignano. Historically, the territory of Volterra was of interest to both Pisa and Florence, also for its mining resources.