Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of "Bib[b]ona".
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of "Borgeri", today's Bolgheri in the Commune of Castagneto Carducci.
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of "Campiglia" (today's Campiglia Marittima), a military and administrative center of the medieval Upper Maremma, first siding with Pisa and then under Florentine domination.
Leonardo represents and indicates "Casale", today's Casale Marittimo.
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of "Castagneto" (today's Castagneto Carducci), the domain of the Gherardesca Counts.
Leonardo indicates by "Castello Anselmo" the ancient fortification in the Commune of Collesalvetti.
Castelnuovo della Misericordia
Leonardo indicates "Castel Novo": this is Castenuovo della Misericordia in the Commune of Rosignano Marittimo.
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of "Donoraticho" today a part of Castagneto Carducci.
On map RL 12683 (Windsor Castle), Leonardo furnishes an aesthetically exceptional representation of Livorno with its port, its tower and its lighthouse. On map RL 12279 he notes: "26 miles along the Arno from Caprona to Livorno and 12 through the marshes...". On folio 305r of the Codex Atlanticus he indicates only "Livorno", "tower" and "lighthouse". On map RL 12277 he calls Livorno a "Pisan port". It may be that the sketch on f. 147 a-r (ex 52 r-b) of the Codex Atlanticus is a recollection of the tower in the sea.
Leonardo indicates and draws "Malandrone", now in the Commune of Rosignano Marittimo.
Monte Nero (Cappellina)
Leonardo indicates by "Capellina" the sanctuary of the Madonna di Monte Nero on map RL 12683 and by "Monte Nero" on folio 305r of the Codex Atlanticus.
Leonardo indicates and represents Montescudaio in a strategic position at the entrance to Val di Cecina.
Leonardo represents and indicates the locality of Nugola in the Commune of Collesalvetti.
Leonardo represents and indicates "Ripalbello", today's Riparbella.
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of Rosignano with its towers, today's Rosignano Marittimo.
Leonardo shows the coastal tower of S. Vincenzo as reference to the defensive system of the Livorno coastline. Near this Pisan tower, the Florentines defeated the allies of Pisa in 1505.
Leonardo draws, without indicating its name, the church of S. Maria della Pietà, of exceptional Renaissance architecture in the shape of a Greek cross built in the second half of the 15th century by Vittorio Ghiberti and Ranieri di Tripalle, at the foot of the hill of Bibbona.
Leonardo represents and indicates the medieval stronghold of Sassetta.
Leonardo indicates the ancient curte of Segalare, between Suvereto, Castagneto and Guardistallo.
Leonardo represents and indicates the marshlands of the Stagno between Pisa and Livorno, where he planned to deviate the water from the Arno. Several canals already flowed into it. "Stagno" is also found on map RL 12277; indicated as "Ponte a Stagno" on folio 305r of the Codex Atlanticus and only localised but without place name on folios 52v-53r of Madrid Ms. II.
Leonardo represents and indicates "Sugereto", today's Suvereto, one of the towns in the Val di Cornia.
Leonardo represents and indicates the tower of Vada in a strategic position as regards the mouth of the Cecina river.