Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of Battifolle in the Commune of Arezzo, whose fortifications were augmented by the Florentines with a tower and a double circle of walls around 1380 and were then damaged in 1431 by Milanese troops led by Niccolò Piccinino (one of the protagonists of the central episode in the Battle of Anghiari painted by Leonardo in Palazzo della Signoria, Florence). The name derives from the massive square demilune, called "battifolle" (citadel).
Leonardo represents and indicates the castle of Calcione, which dominates the Fenni torrent (and is now the name of a lake as well), in the Commune of Lucignano.
By 'Castiglion Aretino', Leonardo describes with particular emphasis, on map RL 12278 (Windsor Castle), today's Castiglion Fiorentino. On the study from life RL 12682, the indication of the town is accompanied by its distances from the various surrounding localities, while in the Codex Atlanticus (f. 918r), in a particularly accurate topographic description of the zone, the measurements of the roads and water courses, in the territory lying between the town and the Chiana are indicated.
Leonardo represents and indicates the locality of Cesa, in the Commune of Marciano della Chiana, on maps RL 12278 and RL 12682.
Leonardo represents and indicates, on maps RL 12278 and RL 12277, the river and master canal of the Chiana, which flows through the Communes of Arezzo, Castiglion Fiorentino, Civitella in Val di Chiana, Cortona, Marciano della Chiana, Monte San Savino, Montepulciano, and Sinalunga. On map RL 12277, at the centre of the great basin of water in the shape of a bird, Leonardo writes 'Chiane d'Arezzo' with four principal river branches: Chiani Aretino, Chiani Umbro, Foenna and the 'Trasimeno river', with the note 'Braccio da Montone closed it where lacking'. In the Codex Atlanticus (f. 127r), Leonardo notes an extraordinary idea for a project: 'Make at the Chiane d'Arezzo such sluice-gates that, when water is lacking in the Arno in summer, the canal will not remain dry. And make the canal 20 braccia wide at the bottom and 30 at the mouth...".
By 'Chianciano', Leonardo indicates Chianciano Terme, between Val di Chiana and Val d'Orcia.
Leonardo represents and indicates the locality of Chiani, in the Commune of Arezzo.
On map RL 12278, Leonardo puts in evidence the city of Chiusi, a centre of primary importance since Etruscan times. Chiusi is also mentioned in Ms. L (f. 94v), from the early 16th century, as a locality situated on the route that led from Buonconvento to Chiusi, continuing on to Foligno. The leading role of Chiusi in the territory in ancient times had been declining, in favour of such centres as Orvieto and Siena, since the 11th century, due to the progressively advancing marshlands in the valley. In spite of this, the city's ancient splendour survived in the numerous archaeological evidence scattered all over the territory and in the records found in ancient sources of its monuments, among them the mythical tomb of King Porsenna. These remains, well known to men of learning in Renaissance times, exerted strong fascination over Leonardo.
By 'Cigiano', Leonardo indicates the stronghold of Ciggiano, in the Commune of Civitella in Val di Chiana.
Leonardo indicates, on map RL 12278 and on folio 918r of the Codex Atlanticus, the course of the Cilone, which flows almost parallel to the Vingone, between Montecchio and Castiglion Fiorentino. The coordinates were taken in the Santa Lucia locality.
Civitella in Valdichiana
Leonardo represents and indicates the tower and walls of Civitella in Val di Chiana.
By 'Corsignano', Leonardo indicates Contignano between Val di Chiana and Val d'Orcia.
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of Cortona on maps RL 12278 and RL 12277; he also mentions it twice on map RL 12682 for the measurement of distances: 'from Castiglione to Cortona 5 miles' and 'From Foiano to Cortona 8 miles'.
Foiano della Chiana
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of Foiano della Chiana on map RL 12278 and indicates its distances from Cortona, Lucignano and Marciano on map RL 12682.
By 'Gargosa', Leonardo indicates the stronghold of Gargonza famous for the assembly of the Ghibellines, in which Dante participated, in 1304.
By 'Ponte a Pietra', Leonardo indicates the bridge over the Chiana further to the south than Ponte a Chiani and Ponte alla Nave.
Leonardo represents the town of Lucignano with its characteristic elliptical and radial layout, on map RL 12278; on map RL 12682 he represents, instead, Lucignano with a view accompanied by indication of its distance from Foiano ('3 miles').
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of Mammi on map RL 12278, and on map RL 12682 'one mile from Castiglione'. He also mentions it in the Codex Atlanticus, f. 918r.
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of Marciano on map RL 12278 and mentions it twice on map RL 12682.
Monte San Savino
By 'Monte assansovino', Leonardo indicates the fortified citadel of Monte San Savino, the birthplace of the sculptor Andrea Contucci, known as Sansovino, and of Pope Julius II. One of the most interesting buildings dating from the time of Leonardo is the Palazzo del Monte by Antonio da Sangallo the Elder.
Leonardo represents and indicates the stronghold of Montecchio in the Commune of Castiglion Fiorentino on maps RL 12278, RL 12682 and in the Codex Atlanticus (f. 918r).
By 'M. Pulciano', Leonardo indicates the city of Montepulciano, a centre of notable historic-artistic interest, the birthplace of Agnolo Poliziano, poet, writer and humanist philologist, author of 'Orfeo e Euridice', for which Leonardo designed the theatrical set of the 'mountain that opens'. Many Florentine architects worked here, from Michelozzo to Antonio da Sangallo the Elder and Baldassarre Peruzzi.
Leonardo represents and indicates Pierle, in the Commune of Cortona.
By 'Pogiole', Leonardo indicates Poggiola in the Commune of Arezzo.
Ponte a Chiani
Leonardo represents and indicates Ponte a Chiani in the Commune of Arezzo: the bridge over the Chiana further to the north than Ponte alla Nave at Ponte a Pietra.
Ponte alla Nave
Leonardo represents and indicates Ponte alla Nave, in the Commune of Arezzo: it is the bridge located between Ponte a Chiani, further north, and Ponte a Pietra, further south.
Leonardo indicates the locality of Renello and twice the course of the torrent of the same name, which flows near Castiglion Fiorentino and Montecchio, on f. 918r of the Codex Atlanticus and on RL 12278 (where the traditional transcription was misleading, appearing as 'Cenella'). Coordinates taken at Le Capannacce (Commune of Castiglion Fiorentino) whose place name may have derived from the huts also sketched by Leonardo on the folio in the Codex Atlanticus.
By 'Rugomagno', Leonardo indicates the stronghold of Rigomagno, in the Commune of Sinalunga, next to which he also draws the 'Kastel di Bertocco'.
Santa Maria alla Poggiola
By 'Bastardo', Leonardo indicates Santa Maria alla Poggiola in the Commune of Arezzo.
Leonardo indicates the bridge at Beccatiquello, where the towers of Beccatiquesto (on the Tuscan bank of the Chiani) and Beccatiquello (on the other bank) controlled the ancient boundary line between Tuscany and Umbria.
By 'Ponte a Vagliano', Leonardo indicates Valiano, in the Commune of Montepulciano, on the Chiana Master Canal, on maps RL 12278 and RL 12682.
Leonardo represents and indicates the course of the Vingone, which flows into the Chiana Master Canal, near the Chiusa dei Monaci (point at which the coordinates were taken). Not to be confused with the Vingone of Castiglion Fiorentino.