The acquisition by Florence of all the Counts Guidi assets, on both banks of the Arno, determined the development of the three villages of Empoli, Cerreto, and Vinci, complementary to each other: Empoli was becoming the most important market in the Florentine Valdarno, but at the same time it represented the natural commercial outlet for the products of the fertile hills of Cerreto and Vinci. During the 15th century the ancient noble castle had developed an extramural village gravitating around the market square, on which stood the municipal loggia and the public well. Through the piazza continued the road from the Arno to the Montalbano passes. The village was the heart of the commercial activities of Vinci: according to the tax declarations of 1427, there operated the trades related to the passage of men and goods, such as the two blacksmith shops and those for the sale of various household goods and foodstuffs. At that date, the family of Antonio di Ser Piero da Vinci, Leonardo's grandfather, already lived in a house in the village near the porticciola (small gate), the point of entry for those coming from the Arno Valley. In 1478, Leonardo’s family managed the municipal mill, situated on the opposite side of the piazza, where the road started toward Montalbano. Next to the mill stood a building that was rented beginning around 1530 by the youngest of Leonardo's half-brothers, Giovanni di Ser Piero da Vinci. Giovanni da Vinci's tavern-butcher shop was located in a strategic position on the corner with Androne Ciofi, marking the route toward San Pantaleo and Cerreto, and near the road to the Montalbano passes. Water, being fundamental for the activity of the butcher shop, could be taken from the channels that served the nearby municipal mill, which was, as well, managed by Leonardo’s family. The tavern, and all the other above-mentioned details regarding the village and the castle of Vinci during Leonardo’s time, can be recognized in the highly detailed late 16th-century map by the Capitani di Parte Guelfa. We can also observe the great abundance of properties owned by Florentines: for example, there are many buildings, farms, and mills owned by the Ridolfi. Among these we can also note Il Ferrale, in Anchiano, and several mills, including the Mill of La Doccia, which was located at the foot of the castle, and which Leonardo drew on one of the folios in his Codex Atlanticus (f. 765 r). The Vinci castle depicted by Leonardo in the famous view RL 12685 shows in detail the conformation of the site, divided into two parts: the upper part, of the castle, with the fortress complex and, probably, the church of Santa Croce, and the underlying part, of the village. It is one of the most accurate representations of a location that Leonardo has reproduced in his papers.